GreenWater Laboratories is one of the first commercial laboratories with the expertise to perform and interpret cyanotoxin analyses. All analyses are conducted by professionals in the field of chemistry with rigorous QA/QC. Confirmatory analyses are available upon request (e.g. LC-MS/(MS) for ELISA assays).
(Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay)
ELISAs are very popular screening assays that provide limited quantitative information for specific groups of cyanotoxins. ELISAs typically have the ability to detect toxins at low levels for both surface and drinking waters. It should be noted that ELISAs are also prone to sample matrix interference that may confound results, leading to erroneous conclusions. It is important to have the ability to verify any positive ELISA responses with other techniques, such as HPLC coupled with PDA, FL or MS.
|Algal Toxin||Reporting Limit
|Microcystins/Nodularins||0.30||Adda ELISA (Method 546 & Ohio EPA DES 701.0)|
|Saxitoxin||0.05||STX specific assay (52255B)|
|Brevetoxin (NSP)||0.10||PbTx3 specific assay (520026)|
|Anatoxin-a(s) (OP carbamate)||qualitative screen||Organophosphate / Carbamate specific assay (550051)|
Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry
GWL/CL currently maintains and operates multiple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems with photodiode array (PDA), fluorescence (FL), and mass spectrometry (Ion Trap and Triple Quad) detection. This provides GWL/CL the ability to report data with a high level of confidence as well as the ability to supply confirmatory analysis on ELISA data.
|Algal Toxin||MDL (ppb - ng/mL)||Method|
||0.01-0.10||Foss & Aubel 2015|
|Total Microcystins using MMPB||0.05||Foss & Aubel 2015|
|Cylindrospermopsin / Epi-cylindrospermopsin||0.05||Foss & Aubel 2013|
|Anatoxin-a / Homoanatoxin-a||0.05||Foss et al. 2018|
|Anatoxin-a / Cylindrospermopsin||0.03 / 0.05||Method 545 per UCMR4|
|Saxitoxins (Paralytic Shellfish Toxins)
||0.02-0.60||Yilmaz et al. 2018|
|BMAA (includes isomers BAMA, 2,4-DAB, 3,4-DAB & AEG)||0.5-10.0||Foss et al. 2018|
|Domoic Acid||0.05||In House LC-MS/MS|
|Dermatoxins (Lyngbyatoxin-A, Aplysiatoxin/Debromoaplysiatoxin)||0.1 - 5.0||In House LC-MS/MS|
|Okadaic Acid & Dinophysitoxins 1&2(DSP)||0.05 - 2.00||In House LC-MS/MS|
|Brevetoxins (PbTx 2 & 3)||0.05 - 2.00||In House LC-MS/MS|
Method Detection/Reporting Limits (MDLs & MRLs) are based on water samples and may vary depending on spike (LFM) returns. Other toxin analyses are available but not listed. Please call regarding your specific needs.
Rapid turnaround times are available on most toxin analyses conducted on water samples. Please call for rapid TAT requests.
GreenWater Laboratories conducts cyanotoxin analyses on many different biological matrices, including tissues and food products. We have developed many methods to address exposure to HABs and you can find our research on our articles page. For more information on analyzing biological matrices, click here.
Additonal extraction charges do apply to complicated matrices. Please contact us with specific requests.
The following links provide our clients with a chain of custody (COC - analysis request form), information about our services, and general sampling instructions. Please call or email us if you have any questions and our experts will be happy to assist.
Please fill out our Analysis Request Form and ship it with your sample(s). This will also serve as a chain of custody (COC).
The linked document explains some of our services, including descriptions of the different types of analyses we conduct.
205 Zeagler Drive, Suite 302
Palatka, FL 32177