The following links provide our clients with a chain of custody (COC - analysis request form), information about our services, and general sampling instructions. Please call or email us if you have any questions and our experts will be happy to assist.
Please fill out our Analysis Request Form and ship it with your sample(s). This will also serve as a chain of custody (COC).
The linked document explains some of our services, including descriptions of the different types of analyses we conduct.
CyanoLab produces and provides a variety of algal toxin standards for research purposes, including microcystins and cylindrospermopsin. These standards are isolated from cyanobacterial sources and purified in strictly controlled environments to >95% purity.
The linked document shows pricing for all cyanotoxin standards that CyanoLab produces. Due to high demand, many are not in stock. Refer to the order form to see which standards are currently in stock.
Please us the linked document to order cyanotoxin standards. The analytes shown represent reference standards currently in stock. You can fax or email the form and we will contact you when your order ships.
Many times, a client has an algal bloom but does not know what it is. The approach we recommend is to send the sample to determine if the bloom is comprised of potentially toxigenic (toxin producing) cyanobacteria. If the sample is dominated by cyanobacteria, recommendations are made for analyses based on what is present.
We find this approach equally beneficial to us and our clients. Using algal identification prior to analysis helps us to learn more about potential toxin producers and helps to save the client money by preventing unnecessary analyses/testing. The PTOX cyanobacteria screen can be completed within hours of receiving the sample, with toxin testing results provided within 24 hours. We continually scour the literature to make sure our recommendations are up to date, both taxonomically and with regard to potential toxin producers.
Our phycologists have over 4 decades of experience with algal identification, and we strive to remain up to date with the continually changing field of algal taxonomy. All identifications are made to the lowest practical level.
When a quantitative analysis of the algal community in a sample is required, an algal identification and enumeration can be requested. Counts can be performed on only a single group of algae (i.e. cyanobacteria) or on the entire algal population. Results for each species are recorded in natural units/mL (cells, colonies, filaments) and cells/mL. Numbers for each group of algae (i.e. diatoms, green algae, cyanobacteria) are tallied as well as the total sample cell density. If desired, biovolume estimates can be made for an additional cost. For a full description of phycological services, click on the below Description of Services link.
GreenWater Laboratories now offers private algal taxonomy workshops, to be held on site at GreenWater Laboratories in Palatka (groups under 4) or in your own facilities.
Andrew Chapman is a skilled phycologist and has been conducting workshops for over 10 years. Workshops typically take place over 1-3 days. Please email Andrew to find out more about this opportunity.
GreenWater Laboratories is one of the first commercial laboratories with the expertise to perform and interpret cyanotoxin analyses. All analyses are conducted by professionals in the field of chemistry with rigorous QA/QC. Confirmatory analyses are available upon request (e.g. LC-MS/(MS) for ELISA assays).
(Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay)
ELISAs are very popular screening assays that provide limited quantitative information for specific groups of cyanotoxins. ELISAs typically have the ability to detect toxins at low levels for both surface and drinking waters. It should be noted that ELISAs are also prone to sample matrix interference that may confound results, leading to erroneous conclusions. It is important to have the ability to verify any positive ELISA responses with other techniques, such as HPLC coupled with PDA, FL or MS.
|Algal Toxin||Reporting Limit
|Microcystins/Nodularins||0.30||Adda ELISA (Method 546 & Ohio EPA DES 701.0)|
|Saxitoxin||0.05||STX specific assay (52255B)|
|Brevetoxin (NSP)||0.10||PbTx3 specific assay (520026)|
|Anatoxin-a(s) (OP carbamate)||qualitative screen||Organophosphate / Carbamate specific assay (550051)|
Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry
GWL/CL currently maintains and operates multiple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems with photodiode array (PDA), fluorescence (FL), and mass spectrometry (Ion Trap and Triple Quad) detection. This provides GWL/CL the ability to report data with a high level of confidence as well as the ability to supply confirmatory analysis on ELISA data.
|Algal Toxin||MDL (ppb - ng/mL)||Method|
||0.01-0.10||Foss & Aubel 2015|
|Total Microcystins using MMPB||0.05||Foss & Aubel 2015|
|Cylindrospermopsin / Epi-cylindrospermopsin||0.05||Foss & Aubel 2013|
|Anatoxin-a / Homoanatoxin-a||0.05||Foss et al. 2018|
|Anatoxin-a / Cylindrospermopsin||0.03 / 0.05||Method 545 per UCMR4|
|Saxitoxins (Paralytic Shellfish Toxins)
||0.02-0.60||Yilmaz et al. 2018|
|BMAA (includes isomers BAMA, 2,4-DAB, 3,4-DAB & AEG)||0.5-10.0||Foss et al. 2018|
|Domoic Acid||0.05||In House LC-MS/MS|
|Dermatoxins (Lyngbyatoxin-A, Aplysiatoxin/Debromoaplysiatoxin)||0.1 - 5.0||In House LC-MS/MS|
|Okadaic Acid & Dinophysitoxins 1&2(DSP)||0.05 - 2.00||In House LC-MS/MS|
|Brevetoxins (PbTx 2 & 3)||0.05 - 2.00||In House LC-MS/MS|
Method Detection/Reporting Limits (MDLs & MRLs) are based on water samples and may vary depending on spike (LFM) returns. Other toxin analyses are available but not listed. Please call regarding your specific needs.
Rapid turnaround times are available on most toxin analyses conducted on water samples. Please call for rapid TAT requests.
GreenWater Laboratories conducts cyanotoxin analyses on many different biological matrices, including tissues and food products. We have developed many methods to address exposure to HABs and you can find our research on our articles page. For more information on analyzing biological matrices, click here.
Additonal extraction charges do apply to complicated matrices. Please contact us with specific requests.
At GreenWater Laboratories, we have developed multiple approaches to handling complicated matrices, such as animal tissues, plant material, sediment/soil samples and algal supplements. We understand the importance of providing reliable data and continue to develop and improve upon our approaches to serve our client goals.
GreenWater Laboratories uses the highest level of QAQC to verify that the data we provide clients is accurate. This includes using standard addition to validate method procedures and for quantitation, as well as continued calibration checks, lab fortified blanks and verifying blanks are free of contamination.
The most sensitive individuals to algal toxin poisoning are those that ingest cyanobacteria when they are in the water. Many times, those individuals are dogs, since they are entering and exiting algal blooms at shorelines. It is a good idea to keep pets out of the water when cyanobacteria may be present. If your family pet is exhibiting any of the following symptoms after swimming, contact your veterinarian immediately.
Samples to submit for testing should include the source water, vomitous (or any retrievable stomach contents) and/or urine. If the animal is deceased, the kidney or liver can be submitted.Pet Intoxication Instructions
Cyanobacteria blooms have been attributed to mass mortality events of many different animals, including fish, birds and livestock. If you suspect an event is tied to an algal bloom, the first collection should be of the water source so that identification of the cyanobacteria present can be made. Toxin testing of the water/bloom material also helps to determine if toxin levels are sufficient to have caused animal intoxication. Many times, an event has a complicated etiology, with more than one toxin and/or stressor present. GreenWater Laboratories can help wildlife officials diagnose these events.
The following biological samples can be submitted for testing, in order of importance:
GreenWater Laboratories frequently tests food products for algal toxins, including shellfish, fish filets, algal supplements, and vegetables that have been in contact with water with active algal blooms. We conduct testing for the same algal toxins present in water, with the addition of extraction charges.
For prompt quotes and timeframes for our services, please call or e-mail us.Supplement Instructions
Learn more about our services and cyanobacteria.
Learn about some of the common bloom forming cyanobacteria lurking in our waters, what they look like and what toxins they potentially produce.
At GreenWater, we encourage employees to share scientific methods and findings with the public when possible. Take a gander at some peer reviewed literature we have published. Many techniqes published we currently employ for client samples.
What kinds of toxins do cyanobacteria produce and what are safe levels? We have compiled some information to assist clients and the public in interpreting algal toxin (cyanotoxin) data
Established in 2001, GreenWater Laboratories/CyanoLab is the only private full-service laboratory of its kind, with a strict focus on cyanobacteria/algae and the toxins they produce. Our experts work closely with our clients to provide technically advanced testing, analyses, monitoring and research - tailored to fit each of their individual needs.
Mark is the lead analytical chemist and President of GreenWater Laboratories/CyanoLab. Mark directs all laboratory tasks and manages all major projects. As an analytical chemist, he performs liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis on samples, supervises new protocol development and monitors quality assurance and control.
Mark has co-authored multiple papers on cyanobacerial toxin analysis and has almost three decades in analytical chemistry experience. His experience with chemistry includes acedemic, private and corporate laboratories.
Andy has been the senior phycologist at GreenWater Laboratories since its establishment in 2001. Andy is a nationally recognized phycologist with over 20 years of experience with identifying algae. Andy specializes in the identification and enumeration of algae/cyanobacteria, specifically potentially toxin producing genera/species.
Andy has organized, assisted and administered workshops on the identification and classification of freshwater algae to such organizations as the Florida Lake Management Society, the North American Lake Management Society, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and Florida Drinking Water Treatment Plants.
Amanda is a chemist with a focus on analytical extraction and analysis techniques. She received a B.S. in Environmental Chemistry and M.S. degrees in Forensic Toxicology and Fisheries/Aquatic Sciences from the University of Florida. Amanda has over a decade of experience with cyanotoxin analysis.
Amanda performs algal toxin analyses and directs research involving the development and validation of methods for the extraction and quantification of algal toxins from biological matrices (e.g. tissues, serum). Amanda also assists with algal identification and extracts/purifies toxin standards.
Kamil has a B.S. degree in Chemistry from the University of Central Florida. Kamil currently conducts algal toxin analysis using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and LC-MS/MS. With a strong background in Chemistry, Kamil is an integral part of the CyanoLab division of GreenWater Laboratories with a focus on providing clients with high quiality purified cyanobacteria toxins for calibration and research purposes. Kamil is also learning about phycology to assist in microscopy work.
Shirley provides administrative support and is the point of contact for clients at GreenWater Labs. With a B.S. Degree in Counseling Psychology and an extensive background in bookkeeping, Shirley provides support to the team in a variety ways. Maintaining accurate accounting records and providing excellent customer service are some of Shirley’s main duties.
Get updates on new products, services and research news from GreenWater Laboratories. Our newsletter is sent approximately every 6 months to a year or when critical algal news is "blooming".
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205 Zeagler Drive, Suite 302
Palatka, FL 32177